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Personality

November 8, 2010 Leave a comment Go to comments

Personality

Compiled by: Punit Jajodia(pnt.jjd@gmail.com) —>2K9 batch

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You can also visit the link http://www.scribd.com/doc/17056710/Personality for a great presentation on Personality.

Definition

Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. According to Gordon Allport, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.”

Personality is best explained through the BIG FIVE model given by John Bearden. In contemporary psychology, the “Big Five” factors (or Five Factor Model; FFM) of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality.

The Big five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN, or CANOE if rearranged). The Neuroticism factor is sometimes referred to as Emotional Stability.

The Big Five factors and their constituent traits can be summarized as follows:

  • Openness – (inventive / curious vs. consistent / cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.

Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. The trait distinguishes imaginative people from down-to-earth, conventional people. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, compared to closed people, more creative and more aware of their feelings. They are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs.

People with low scores on openness tend to have more conventional, traditional interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous, and subtle. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion or even view these endeavors as uninteresting.

High score                                                                                                             Low score

  • Conscientiousness – (efficient / organized vs. easy-going / careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.

Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement. The trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. It influences the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Conscientiousness includes the factor known as Need for Achievement (NAch).

High score                                                                                   Low score


  • Extraversion – (outgoing / energetic vs. shy / reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.

Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say “Yes!” or “Let’s go!” to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves.

Introverts lack the social exuberance and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to seem quiet, low-key, deliberate, and less involved in the social world. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone. They may be very active and energetic, simply not socially.

High score                                                                                                             Low score


Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. The trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy.

Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being, and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative.

High score                                                                                             Low score


Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish the ability of a person scoring high on neuroticism to think clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress.

At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Freedom from negative feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings.

High score                                                                                                             Low score


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Major personality traits influencing organizational behavior

1.Locus of control:                It is the degree to which people believe that they are the masters of their own fate. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Those with a low internal locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events.

Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behavior, tend to exhibit more political behaviors, and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a low external locus of control. Those with a high internal locus of control are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation.

One’s “locus” (Latin for “place” or “location”) can either be internal (meaning the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life).

2.Machiavellianism(Mach)

Machiavellianism in politics is the political doctrine of Machiavelli, which denies the relevance of morality in political affairs and holds that craft and deceit are justified in pursuing and maintaining political power.

Machiavellianism can be summarized in the following three lines:

  • gain and use power.
  • Ends justify the means.
  • If it is worth it, use it.

An individual high in Mach is pragmatic(able to solve problems in a practical way), maintains emotional distance and believes that ends justify the means. Such individuals succeed in situations where there are minimum rules and regulations and in those which involve face to face interaction rather than indirect communication.

3.Self-esteem

People differ in the degree to which they like or dislike themselves. Self esteem determines the expectation of success by an individual. People having high self esteem believe that they possess the ability to succeed at work.

4.Self monitoring

Self monitoring refers to the process through which people regulate their own behavior in order to “look good” so that they will be perceived by others in a favorable manner. It distinguishes between high self-monitors, who monitor their behavior to fit different situations, and low self-monitors, who are more cross-situationally consistent.

5.Risk-Taking

High Risk-taking Managers

Make quicker decisions.
Use less information to make decisions.
Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations.

Low Risk-taking Managers

Are slower to make decisions.
Require more information before making decisions.
Exist in larger organizations with stable environments.

Risk Propensity :      Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

6.Personality types

Type A personality

Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or people.

Type A’s

1.       Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly.

2.       Feel impatient with the rate at which most events are taking place.

3.       Strive to think or do two or more things at once.

4.       Cannot cope with leisure time.

5.       Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

Type B’s

1.       Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience.

2.       Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation.

3.       Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost.

4.       Can relax without guilt.

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